Terpenoids and steroids lipids

Terpenoids known to be present in Cannabis have a variety of effects, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antimalarial activity. Besides the general health-promoting effect of these antimicrobial activities, they may also be important in reducing the dangers of recreational smoking of herbal Cannabis contaminated with microbial organisms. 224 A number of studies have investigated the antimicrobial effects of Cannabis essential oil. 241 One conclusion was that terpenoids from hash oil (obtained from drug cultivars of Cannabis, high in THC content) displayed an antimicrobial effect that was greater than essential oil derived from fiber cultivars. 242

Pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are converted by DOXP synthase (Dxs) to 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate, and by DOXP reductase (Dxr, IspC) to 2- C -methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP). The subsequent three reaction steps catalyzed by 4-diphosphocytidyl-2- C -methyl-D-erythritol synthase (YgbP, IspD), 4-diphosphocytidyl-2- C -methyl-D-erythritol kinase (YchB, IspE), and 2- C -methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (YgbB, IspF) mediate the formation of 2- C -methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP). Finally, MEcPP is converted to ( E )-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate ( HMB-PP ) by HMB-PP synthase (GcpE, IspG), and HMB-PP is converted to isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) by HMB-PP reductase (LytB, IspH).

Pharmacokinetics: Absorption is slower following the oral route of administration with lower, more delayed peak THC levels. Bioavailability is reduced following oral ingestion due to extensive first pass metabolism. Smoking marijuana results in rapid absorption with peak THC plasma concentrations occurring prior to the end of smoking. Concentrations vary depending on the potency of marijuana and the manner in which the drug is smoked, however, peak plasma concentrations of 100-200 ng/mL are routinely encountered.

Toxicity concerns
• In Himachal Pradesh, L. camara variety aculeata (red flower variety) has been responsible for livestock poisoning.
• Most of the livestock poisoning occur on grazing after prolonged stall feeding and during fodder scarcity or draught periods.
• Toxicity: Toxic chemical constituents are toxic terpenoids: lantadene A, B, C and D, and icterogenin. Lantadene A,B and C constitute nearly 69% of total terpenoids. Triterpenoids are most rapidly absorbed from the small intestine, but slow absorption from and stasis in the rumen causes slow and continuous exposure of the liver that lasts for days.
• Ingestion of lantana foliage causes decreased luminal motility that may progress to ruminal atony and cause constipation and impaction as the animals become anorectic and unable to defecate.
• Sometimes, the afflicted animals present with photosensitization with swollen ears and eyelids.
• Ingestion of Berries by Children / No Significant Toxicity: Study reviewed the California Poison Control System database on 641 reported pediatric cases of ingestion of L. camara berries from 1997-2008. Reported effects were vomiting, abdominal pain, agitation, diarrhea, buccal irritation, tachycardia, drowsiness, nausea and mydriasis. No significant effects and no deaths were recorded. Report concludes the ingestion of L. camara (including unripe berries) was not associated with significant toxicity. The ingestion of unripe berries did not exhibit more frequent or more severe symptoms than ingestion of ripe berries or other plant parts. Children with asymptomatic ingestions or mild symptoms can be treated at home. ( 32 )
* Accidental Poisoning of Ostriches that Fed on L. camara Hay : Letter reports an unusual case of poisoning from ingestion of L. camara by a flock of 14-month old ostriches. The report cautions farmers to prevent the encroachment of the plant onto pasture land where grass is cut and collected for purpose of making hay. ( 41 )

Availability
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Terpenoids and steroids lipids

terpenoids and steroids lipids

Toxicity concerns
• In Himachal Pradesh, L. camara variety aculeata (red flower variety) has been responsible for livestock poisoning.
• Most of the livestock poisoning occur on grazing after prolonged stall feeding and during fodder scarcity or draught periods.
• Toxicity: Toxic chemical constituents are toxic terpenoids: lantadene A, B, C and D, and icterogenin. Lantadene A,B and C constitute nearly 69% of total terpenoids. Triterpenoids are most rapidly absorbed from the small intestine, but slow absorption from and stasis in the rumen causes slow and continuous exposure of the liver that lasts for days.
• Ingestion of lantana foliage causes decreased luminal motility that may progress to ruminal atony and cause constipation and impaction as the animals become anorectic and unable to defecate.
• Sometimes, the afflicted animals present with photosensitization with swollen ears and eyelids.
• Ingestion of Berries by Children / No Significant Toxicity: Study reviewed the California Poison Control System database on 641 reported pediatric cases of ingestion of L. camara berries from 1997-2008. Reported effects were vomiting, abdominal pain, agitation, diarrhea, buccal irritation, tachycardia, drowsiness, nausea and mydriasis. No significant effects and no deaths were recorded. Report concludes the ingestion of L. camara (including unripe berries) was not associated with significant toxicity. The ingestion of unripe berries did not exhibit more frequent or more severe symptoms than ingestion of ripe berries or other plant parts. Children with asymptomatic ingestions or mild symptoms can be treated at home. ( 32 )
* Accidental Poisoning of Ostriches that Fed on L. camara Hay : Letter reports an unusual case of poisoning from ingestion of L. camara by a flock of 14-month old ostriches. The report cautions farmers to prevent the encroachment of the plant onto pasture land where grass is cut and collected for purpose of making hay. ( 41 )

Availability
Wild-crafted.  

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