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The aim of this study was to determine if a change in protein/carbohydrate ratio influences plasma steroid hormone concentrations. There is little information about the effects of specific dietary components on steroid hormone metabolism in humans. Testosterone concentrations in seven normal men were consistently higher after ten days on a high carbohydrate diet (468 +/- 34 ng/dl, mean +/- .) than during a high protein diet (371 +/- 23 ng/dl, p less than ) and were accompanied by parallel changes in sex hormone binding globulin ( +/- nmol/l vs. +/- nmol/l respectively, p less than ). By contrast, cortisol concentrations were consistently lower during the high carbohydrate diet than during the high protein diet ( +/- micrograms/dl vs. +/- micrograms/dl respectively, p less than ), and there were parallel changes in corticosteroid binding globulin concentrations (635 +/- 60 nmol/l vs. 754 +/- 31 nmol/l respectively, p less than ). The diets were equal in total calories and fat. These consistent and reciprocal changes suggest that the ratio of protein to carbohydrate in the human diet is an important regulatory factor for steroid hormone plasma levels and for liver-derived hormone binding proteins.

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is thought to mainly function as a transporter and reservoir for the estradiol and testosterone sex hormones. However it has also been demonstrated that SHBG can bind to a cell surface receptor (SHBG-R). The SHBG-R has not been completely characterized. A subset of steroids are able to bind to the SHBG/SHBG-R complex resulting in an activation of adenylyl cyclase and synthesis of the cAMP second messenger. [19] Hence the SHBG/SHBG-R complex appears to act as a transmembrane steroid receptor that is capable of transmitting signals to the interior of cells.

To examine the direct effects of steroids on vascular smooth muscle, we have incubated rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in culture either steroid-free, or with natural and synthetic corticosteroids (RU26988, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 9 alpha-fluorocortisol, aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone) or sex steroids (estradiol, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone). At the end of 24 h, cultures were pulsed with [35S]methionine for 2 h, the cells lysed, and patterns of incorporation of isotope into protein determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Neither estradiol nor 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone altered protein synthetic profiles compared with control (steroid-free) incubations. In contrast, cultures exposed to the six corticosteroids at 10(-7) M showed an identical pattern of response (6 proteins increased, 6 proteins decreased). This response appears to be glucocorticoid specific, since the mineralocorticoids (9 alpha-fluorocortisol, aldosterone, and deoxycorticosterone) did not have any effects over and above those seen with the pure glucocorticoid RU26988. We interpret these data as evidence for a putative glucocorticoid domain of at least 12 proteins in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. In contrast, there appear to be no comparable estrogen-, androgen-, or mineralocorticoid-specific changes in these cells.

Steroid free protein powder

steroid free protein powder

To examine the direct effects of steroids on vascular smooth muscle, we have incubated rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in culture either steroid-free, or with natural and synthetic corticosteroids (RU26988, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 9 alpha-fluorocortisol, aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone) or sex steroids (estradiol, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone). At the end of 24 h, cultures were pulsed with [35S]methionine for 2 h, the cells lysed, and patterns of incorporation of isotope into protein determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Neither estradiol nor 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone altered protein synthetic profiles compared with control (steroid-free) incubations. In contrast, cultures exposed to the six corticosteroids at 10(-7) M showed an identical pattern of response (6 proteins increased, 6 proteins decreased). This response appears to be glucocorticoid specific, since the mineralocorticoids (9 alpha-fluorocortisol, aldosterone, and deoxycorticosterone) did not have any effects over and above those seen with the pure glucocorticoid RU26988. We interpret these data as evidence for a putative glucocorticoid domain of at least 12 proteins in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. In contrast, there appear to be no comparable estrogen-, androgen-, or mineralocorticoid-specific changes in these cells.

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