Salep kortikosteroid dan antibiotik

Increasing evidence points toward the importance of nasal neurovascular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of noneosinophilic PNAR. Neurovascular homeostasis is maintained by a balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone in the upper former pathway controls the release of norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y, which favor a state of nasal patency. In contrast, parasympathetic fibers release acetylcholine and, among other neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide. These are thought to induce nasal congestion and mucus secretion. In VMR there might be a state of relative hyperreactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system and hyporesponsiveness of the sympathetic nervous system, perhaps as a result of being exposed to irritants or noxious stimuli, such as cold dry airor, alternatively, histamine and methacholine

Salep kortikosteroid dan antibiotik

salep kortikosteroid dan antibiotik

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salep kortikosteroid dan antibiotiksalep kortikosteroid dan antibiotiksalep kortikosteroid dan antibiotiksalep kortikosteroid dan antibiotiksalep kortikosteroid dan antibiotik

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