In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.
Decongestant nasal sprays and eye drops often contain oxymetazoline and are used for topical decongestion . Pseudoephedrine acts indirectly on the adrenergic receptor system, whereas phenylephrine and oxymetazoline are direct agonists . The effects are not limited to the nose, and these medicines may cause hypertension (high blood pressure) through vasoconstriction ; it is for this reason that people with hypertension are advised to avoid them. Most decongestants, however, are not pronounced stimulants, due to lack of response from the other adrenoreceptors. Besides hypertension, common side-effects include sleeplessness, anxiety, dizziness, excitability, and nervousness.
Before insertion, blow your nose and make sure that it is dry. Insert the device as illustrated. Make sure that the pointy end of the nasal filter is directed towards the front of your nose (see illustration above). Use a mirror until you are comfortable with the process of inserting the nasal filter. Use a mirror to check that the device is positioned correctly (see illustration). The height of the nasal filter can be adjusted using the crossbar. When inserted correctly, you should be able to touch the side of your nostrils without experiencing discomfort. You may need to use both hands to insert the device until you are comfortable with the method.