Propofol has probably the commonly used intravenous anesthetic and is most frequently used for the induction of anesthesia. Like most intravenous anesthetics, Propofol works by increasing GABA-mediated inhibatory tone in the CNS. Propofol decreases the rate of dissociation of the GABA from the receptor, thereby increasing the duration of the GABA-activated opening of the chloride channel with resulting hyperpolarization of cell membranes. At supraclinical concentrations, it may directly activate the receptor’s chloride channel.
In a clinical study, we observed a linear relationship between Bria-IMT™ exposure and the rising levels of CD40L (CD40 ligand) in a subject with a strong anti-tumor effect. CD40L is a protein that is expressed on components of the immune system including activated T cells, B cells, platelets, monocytic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, mast cells, and basophils. CD40L is known as one of the strongest stimulants of the immune system resulting in dendritic cell maturation, and rising serum levels of CD4+, CD8+, and NK cells, ., immune cells known for their anti-tumor activities. Additionally, the CD40/CD40L pathway is critical for the development of protective anti-tumor activity by providing a key initial step in the development of humoral (B cell/antibody-mediated) immunity. However, CD40L has also shown immune-suppressive activity in some tumor models. By higher expression of CD40/CD40L levels, tumors have been able to avoid both T cell and antigen-presenting cell (APC) compartments, and to establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.